OEF Debating --- Introduction ---

This module actually contains 15 exercises which can be used to practise speaking in public - either in the form of a debate or when making a simple presentation. Several aspects of oral production are dealt with: word stress, contrastive stress, rhetorical techniques and pausing. The suggested order of the exercices is A-O, but you can also pick and choose exercices as you wish.

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E. Contrastive stress



F. Using structures to emphasize a point

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G. Emphatic structures: practice

O. Homework : Mark where you would pause

Print the second part of the speech, mark the pauses in the speech and practice reading it aloud. You can compare your voice to the original speaker's by listening to the recording of the second part of the speaker's speech
Remember that you can pause:

between the subject and the verb, between the verb and the complement and when there is a punctuation mark.

However do not pause in the middle of noun groups (these are often preceeded by a preposition - for example : "through democratic dialogue" is a noun group.)

Point of Information: Speaker, Green Peace is a group which works through pressure groups and through democratic dialogue,...

Rebuttal: No Sir, I would put to you, I would put to you that what Green Peace, in fact, does advocate as we see them traipsing around the Pacific, is in fact, coercive measures. What we see in Green Peace is force!

So let's move on, Ladies and Gentlemen, to the extension of our case, the real need to increase enforcement, and how do we do that?

We would say you punish both business and countries who do not go to the extent, or do not fulfill the pointers that have been asked of them.

We would say this can be done in two ways:

Firstly, you force them to clean up, through such facilities that already exist such as the global environmental facilities and the Forestry Principal Agency. Give those bodies more money, secondly, by forms of enforcement.

What you do, Ladies and gentlemen, one one hand if they are dependent on, like in the Third World, the IMF or the World Bank, then you withold funds. On the other hand, if they are a First world country which is more likely they're going to be, then you punish those companies, you punish those industries, Ladies and Gentlemen. Just like you see in Environmental protection Agencies, you make the people who made the mess, clean it up.

That is what we are advocating. We're advocating a hard-line. It's not a warm fuzzy demoratic line. But, Ladies and Gentlemen, that is what we have to do. We have to enforce, if we want to save our environment.

A. The language of debating: expressions

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B. The language of debates: dictation

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H. Practice writing emphatic sentences.

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I. English teachers are a waste of money

h :

: - a a -

M. Rhetorical techniques

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J. Emphasis: Part 1



K. Emphasis: Part 2



L. Emphasis: Part 3



C. Word stress

D. Word stress patterns

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