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I. General user guide

  1. Introduction: what is WIMS and how it works

    WIMS (WWW Interactive Multipurpose Server) allows you to work on mathematics interactively via the Internet.

    Unlike most interactive activities on the Internet through the use of javascript or java, WIMS interactively processes your requests on the server. This allows it to make very sophisticated computations for you.

    For an ordinary user, WIMS is a web site just like any other web site. On which, you can consult interactive textbooks, answer mathematical exercises, make computations and draw curves or surfaces, or play math games, by clicking on buttons or pictures just like any other web page.

    By clicking on buttons or pictures, you send a ``request'' back to the server, which computes your request and send you back the result. The computations are often so powerful and sophisticated that you would never imagine it to be possible to do simply through a few clicks.

    Sometimes, javascript and/or java applets are also used to reinforce this interactivity.

    The structure of WIMS is particularly interesting for teaching activities, in which the server can individually analyze the behavior of students, and propose activities to each of them according to his/her learning requirements.

  2. What can I do with WIMS

    Currently, WIMS supports 2 main categories of activities:
    1. Interactive exercises allowing you to practice your mathematical knowledge.

    2. Computational or graphing tools helping you to solve your problems.

    There are also some recreational pieces of different styles.

    You can search this site for activities which interest you.

    Teachers can set up virtual classes and selectively put activities into the class, so that students can sign in to the class, work on the activities assigned by the teacher, and get scores which will be controled by the teacher.

  3. Exercises and scores

    One of the main types of activities on WIMS is interactive exercises.

    These exercises may take various styles. For example, Gravity shoot asks you to click on a picture and gives you a score according to the distance between your click and the good position; Coincidence Freehand presents you a curve and asks you to enter a function to fit the curve as precisely as possible, allowing you several tests; Graphic derivative gives you the graph of a function and asks you to recognize that of the derivative of the function; Scenario of inequalities presents a step by step commented argument and asks you to find out erroneous steps; Decrypt shows a crypted message and lets you recover it through step by step experiments; etc.

    There are many OEF (Open Exercise Format) exercise packages, each collecting a number of more traditional exercises on a given theme. You can selectively choose a subset of the exercises in each package, to work on them. Teachers can also create their own OEF exercises directly online.

    Most interactive exercises on WIMS are configurable with different difficulty levels and styles. Configuration of the exercise is done in an introduction page, so that once you start to work on the exercise, the difficulty level will remain stable.

    This is important because WIMS exercises are highly repeatable. You can ask for the same exercise again and again, and get one with different parameters each time. On the one hand, this allows you to repeatedly practice on the exercise until you get a sufficiently good understanding; on the other hand, when many students are working side by side on a same exercise (in a computer room), the risk of copying is reduced to the minimum.

    When you finish an exercise, WIMS attributes a score to you according to your degree of success. The score ranges from 0 (total failure) to 10 (full success). When you are signed in as a participant of a class and work on the exercise as one of the assignment of the teacher, this score will be registered on the server. The server can process the score of each participant and present them to the teacher in different ways, in real time.

    Note that some exercises can be organized in ``sessions'' composed of a given number of questions. In this case, a score is attributed only at the end of the session (but not at the end of each question), which is usually computed according to your degree successes to all the questions in the session as a whole. And the number of questions in a session can usually be configured in the introduction page.

  4. Computing and graphing tools

    WIMS contains various online mathematical tools (computations, graphing), for topics ranging from elementary numerical calculation to animated plotters to advanced calculators on special subjects.

    You may click here to get the complete list of online tools on this site, or make a search of a special tool.

  5. How to enter a mathematical expression

    When you work with WIMS, you will often be asked to enter mathematical expressions.

    Mathematical expressions can be typed in the usual way: 3*x+5 for 3x+5, sin(pi*x) for sin(pi x), y^3+1 for y3+1, (x+1)/(y-1) for , etc.

    Besides, WIMS contains an intelligent analyzer which can correct common ``errors'' in the mathematical expressions. For example, 3x+5 will be corrected to 3*x+5, sin x will be corrected to sin(x), etc. But we do not recommend you to rely too heavily on this corrector, because sometimes ambiguities in the expressions might lead to wrong interpretations. It is best to always type mathematical expressions ``correctly'', even if it is sometimes combersome.

    Here is a list of mathematical functions and the (correct) way to enter them. These functions are recognized by WIMS whenever they make sense. (Some modules may accept additional functions; please refer to help pages of the modules.)

    You may replace x by any sub-expression in the following table.

    functiondescriptionhow to type
    pi constant known to all pi or Pi or PI
    ebase of natural logarithmic e or E
    |x|absolute value of xabs(x)
    sign(x)sign of x:
     =-1 if x<0
     =0 if x=0
     =1 if x>0
    square root of x sqrt(x) or x^(1/2)
    closest integer to xrint(x)
    largest integer lexfloor(x)
    smallest integer gexceil(x)
    exexponential exp(x) or e^x or E^x
    ln(x)natural logarithmiclog(x) or ln(x)
    lg(x)logarithmic of base 10lg(x) or log10(x)
    sin(x)trigonometric sinesin(x)
    cos(x)trigonometric cosinecos(x)
    tg(x)trigonometric tangenttan(x) or tg(x)
    ctg(x)trigonometric cotangentcotan(x) or ctg(x)
    or cot(x)
    arcsin(x)inverse trigonometricasin(x) or arcsin(x)
    arccos(x)inverse trigonometricacos(x) or arccos(x)
    arctg(x)inverse trigonometricatan(x) or arctan(x)
    or arctg(x)
    sh(x)hyperbolic sinesh(x) or sinh(x)
    ch(x)hyperbolic cosinech(x) or cosh(x)
    th(x)hyperbolic tangentth(x) or tanh(x)
    Argsh(x)inverse hyperbolicasinh(x) or argsh(x)
    or Argsh(x)
    Argch(x)inverse hyperbolicacosh(x) or argch(x)
    or Argch(x)
    Argth(x)inverse hyperbolicatanh(x) or argth(x)
    or Argth(x)
    max(x,y)Bigger among x and ymax(x,y)
    min(x,y)Smaller among x and ymin(x,y)
    gcd(x,y)Greatest Common Divisorgcd(x,y)
    lcm(x,y)Least Commun Multiplelcm(x,y)
  6. Copyright policies

    Free service provided by Wims on the Internet comes with no guarantee of whatever kind.

    The server program is subjet to GNU General Public Licence. Its source code is available from http download at the address [ Détail]

    © 1997-2000- Author of the server program: of Université de Nice - Sophia Antipolis.

    A translations into Chinese Big5 version (server and modules) has been done by (work interrupted since).

    Translations into simplified Chinese version (server and modules) is done by a team led by .

    Translations into Italian version (server and modules) is done by .

    Translations into Nederlands version (server and modules) is done by .

    Each wims module has its own copyright policy, which may differ from that of the server program. Please refer to appropriate pages of the individual module for its policy.

    The source code of freely distributable modules are available at the same ftp address as the server program.

    Some modules may use commercial softwares for their functionning. It is the responsibility of the site maintainer to check with the software vendors that such a use does not violate the licensing policy of the software, if he wants to install that module on his server.

II. Guided tour of this site

Sisplau cliqueu aquí per explorar aquest lloc.

III. Work in virtual classes

  1. What is a virtual class

    A virtual class is a space where students can work under the guidance of a supervisor (teacher). All the activities of a virtual class, either for supervisor or for participants, are carried out on the users' web browser, via connections to the WIMS site.

    When a virtual class is created by the teacher who then becomes the supervisor of it, students can register into the class as participants. The supervisor assigns works for the students, organized in worksheets.

    When putting work items (exercises) into worksheets, the supervisor also determines the number of points each student should gather on the item. Each time a student (totally or partially) successes in solving an exercises, he/she is attributed a certain number of points (from 0 to 10) detail for this success. This number of points is registered by the server, and the supervisor can consult the achievements of each student, either globally or individually, as a whole or exercise by exercise.

    When connected into the class as the supervisor, teacher can also create his/her own specific interactive exercises and then insert into worksheets. These exercises automatically take advantage of the standard features of WIMS: random pickup of exercises and/or parameters, registered scores, etc.

    Each virtual class also contains a message board allowing supervisor and students to exchange views in different ways. Messages may contain mathematical formulas in a very convenient way, and readers will see the formulas automatically formatted.

    Planned for the future: test sheets with sophisticated random exercise generation and work time limitation will also be available. Software to analyze student performance based on registered data on his/her work is under study.

  2. Guide to participants

    You can work as a participant of a class, if you are a student and your teacher has created a class for you.

    In order to work in a class, you should first register yourself to that class. This often requires a class password which can only be obtained from your teacher.

    Once registered, you can use your login name and (personal) password to sign in to the class and work in it.

    The class contains a certain number of worksheets. Each worksheet has a number of works the teacher has assigned to you. Some of the works have associated (required) scores. You can click on the work item to work on it. Each time you successfully finish a work (an exercise), you will get some points for your success. These points are accumulated in your register for this exercise, until the number of points you got reaches the required number. At the mean time, the quality of your points is also computed by the server and shown at the end of the exercise. Your teacher may use these numbers (number of points obtained and quality) to control your progress. You can also compare your score with the average of the class.

  3. Frequently asked questions by participants

    • Q. I have forgotten my personal password!

      A. You may ask your teacher to attribute a new password to your registration (which you should change afterwords).

    • Q. I finished an exercise but got no score.

      A. Certain exercises require you to finish a session with several questions before giving you a score. Be sure that you arrive at the end of the session.

    • Q. The server refuses to register my score.

      A. There are several things you should verify.

      • Sometimes your teacher allows you to work on the exercises but restrict the registration of the scores to a limited period and computers. If this is the case, you will see a message `the registration of score is closed for your connection' at the bottom of your exercise page.
      • If you get more scores on an exercise than required by your teacher, the extra points will become hidden and not counted for the total of points. However, the point quality will be computed on ALL scores, hidden or not.
      • If you change the configuration of an exercise, scores obtained by working on the reconfigured exercise will not be counted. And in this case the link ``worksheet'' will disappear from the top and bottom of your exercise page.
    • Q. Do I have the right to choose a same exercise several times before working on it?

      A. You can do it a few number of times (the exact number being kept secret) without penalty. Beyond that, you will get some zeros on this exercise (which reduce the score quality but do not change the number of points obtained).

    • Q. Can I get more points on an exercise than the number assigned by the teacher?

      A. You can work on an exercise as many times as you like, and get as many points as you like. But extra points exceeding the assigned number will be discarded by the server when counting your achievement (percentage of work done).

      On the other hand, the score quality is calculated on all your works on the exercises, assigned or extra alike. So by continuing to work on the exercise, you have the possibility of improving this quality (and also the possibility of lowering it if you make errors).

    • Q. How do the two numbers (percentage of work done and score quality) affect my global grades?

      R. The server computes the grades according to a formula which depends on the severity level of the sheet. This level is determined by the supervisor, and the formulas are described in the page of grades (click on the link `help' at the top of that page).

  4. Worksheets and scores

    Works in virtual classes are organized in worksheets.

    Each virtual class can have up to 64 worksheets, and each worksheet can contain up to 64 work items. A work item can be any Wims module: exercise, tool, or other.

    Each worksheet has a status. The status of a newly created worksheet is under preparation, which allows work items be added and modified. This is the only status under which the worksheet can be deleted. A worksheet under preparation is only visible by the supervisor.

    When the supervisor activates a worksheet under preparation, the sheet becomes active. It can no longer be modified or deleted, and participants will be able to work on it.

    Each worksheet has an expiration date. Passing this date, it becomes expired, in which case participants will continue to see it and be able to work on it, but no score will be registered.

    And an expired sheet can become hidden, in which case participants no longer see it (but it is always visible to the supervisor).

    The supervisor can manually switch a worksheet between active, expire and hidden (in any direction).

  5. How to set up a class (for teachers)

    If you are a teacher, and if you want to create a virtual class on this site for the work of your students, try to click here. You may also click here to see whether this site contains an example class (or a class which is not protected by a password). If so, you can register to it and see how it works (under student's view).

    Each WIMS site may has its own policy on class creations. Some accepts free virtual classes from anyone, others may charge maintenance fees or pose other restrictions. Please check with the site manager for the conditions.

    For security reasons, you must have a working email address at the moment when you create your class. After you have filled the form for the necessary informations about your class, a random code is generated by the server. This code is sent to you email address, and you can get it only by reading your mail. You should then resubmit this code to an html form for authentification, otherwise your creation of class will be refused.

    This email address will also be made visible by the registered participants (students) of your class, allowing them to send messages to you.

    After the class is created, you becomes the supervisor of the class, and you can sign in to the class as such, in order to manage the class (creation of worksheets, assignment of works into worksheets, control of student progress, etc.)

    There are several ways in which you can let your students to register into your classes, through the use of a `class password' which you may enter when create your class:

    • You create your class `world open', by putting an empty class password, thus allowing anybody to register as participant. This mode is not advisable because you loose control to your class. Many sites will also disallow such classes (you may get your class immediately closed by the site manager), except for some example classes set up by the site manager.
    • You assign a class password and keep it secret. In this way you will be the only person who can register people to the class.
    • You assign a class password and communicate it to your students. Using this password, your students can register to the class by themselves, but others cannot getin.

  6. Frequently asked questions by supervisors

    • Q. How should I do to add an exercise to a worksheet?

      A. From the homepage of the class (when you are logged as the supervisor), find the desired exercise, then choose the desired configuration (level of difficulty, etc.), and go to work on it. At the bottom of the working page of the exercise, there is a link called `add to a worksheet'. Click on it and follow instructions.

      Please notice that the exercise thus added to the worksheet will have exactly the configuration you have chosen, when your students work on it.

    • Q. Is it possible for a student to change the configuration of an exercise fixed by me (supervisor)?

      A. Yes, it is possible. But no score will be registered if it is obtained from a reconfigured exercise.

    • Q. Can I delete an active worksheet?

      A. No. When a worksheet is activated, it can neither be modified nor be deleted. However, you can change its status to expired (participants see it but no score will be registered) or expired and hidden (participants no longer see it). But the sheet will always be visible to you.

      We know that this is awkward, and we are studying the possibility of a more flexible solution.

    • Q. I would like to open score registration of a sheet exactly for PC's in a given classroom.

      A. Usually these PC's all have IP addresses with the same starting numbers, for example,,, etc. In this case you can open score registration for the IP address 134.59.102., and all the above PC's will get through (together with maybe some other machines having the same starting address).

    • Q. A participant has forgotten his/her login name or password.

      A. From supervisor's home page, click on `list of participants' then click on the name of the participant. The login name will show up at the head of the page. And at the bottom of the page, there is a link allowing you to change his/her password without knowing the old one.

IV. Guide for advanced users and contributors

WIMS és un sistema obert, lliure i que accepta contribucions de tothom. Espero que les contribucions dels usuaris enriquiran considerablement el sistema i que finalment es convertirà en una eina important per la comunitat matemàtica.

Utilitzant WIMS en el mode avançat següent, t'ajudaràs a tu mateix i al mateix temps contribuiràs al desenvolupament del sistema (per tant ajudaràs a altres).

  1. On-line creation of exercises

    One of the big features of WIMS is that it allows anybody to create his/her own exercises directly through the web browser.

    Such an exercise created online is under OEF format (OEF: Online Exercise Format). This format does not contain WIMS-specific information, and may be used on any exercise system which accepts it.

    Although OEF exercises do not exploit the full power offered by WIMS, they are sufficiently versatile in most cases: you can put random parameters (random numbers, functions, text...) into such an exercise, and make complicated processes on them (differentiation, integration, evaluation,...). Answers can be multiple choices with one or more correct answers, numerical or functional input, or a mixture of them. You can even set up specific conditions to analyze the answers, instead of comparing them with a standard answer (so that for example exercises with infinitely many correct answers can be created).

    If you have set up a virtual class, you can create exercises for your class and put them into worksheets so that your students can work on them and get scored for their works, giving you full control of their progress.

    The online creation of exercises is done through the utility Createxo, which contains more detailed help pages about the format and syntax of OEF exercises.

  2. On-line creation of math tools

    Planned for the future: WIMS will allow you to create your own online (computational or graphing) tools directly on your web browser.
  3. Set up a mirror site

    If you are a teacher and if you want to use WIMS regularly in your teaching, you will be interested in installing it locally in your institution. The response will be more rapid, and you are freed from eventual network interruptions.

    WIMS is a software under GNU license. It can be freely downloaded, and can be installed on Linux operating systems. Please see the README file in the download directory for more details on how to install WIMS.

    You can also write to for questions on installing mirror sites. Please click here for a list of WIMS mirror sites accessible to the general public.

    On the other hand, please do not use an internet robot program to gather pages on this site! WIMS site can only be consulted interactively ONLINE, and pages gathered by a robot program are absolutely useless.

  4. Translate WIMS into my language

    WIMS is designed with multi-language support. Several languages are currently available, including English, French, Chinese, and others.

    Efforts have been made in order to make translation possible even by people not knowing much of computer programming. But due to the huge amount of content in the system as well as its constant development, translating WIMS into a new language means a big amount of work.

    On the other hand, because of the educational vocation of WIMS, translating it to your native language may represent an important service for the younger generation of your country.

    If you are interested in translating WIMS into your native language, please .

    The following is a brief extract of my reply to a 'virtual' translator for Dutch:
    First of all, I have to declare the language in the wims kernel. What
    should be the extension? (Like 'en' for English, 'fr' for French, 'it' for
    Italian, etc. 'nl' for Dutch?) I also need a small national flag image
    to represent it.
    To find out what are the files to translate, there is a very simple
    rule. Everywhere there is files or directories with the same name base
    but with both name extensions .en and .fr, a corresponding file or
    directory with extension .nl should be added.
    And in order to see what are the lines to translate, you can make a
    comparison of the English and French versions (using diff).
    Sometimes, the French version contains files which are merely links to
    the English counterpart. In this case, you need only to copy the link to
    the Dutch version.
    Things to translate are all within the directory public_html. Files for
    the system are mainly within the following subdirectories:
    modules/adm, modules/home, modules/help, modules/template,
    modules/classes, bases/sys, html, msg.
    There are also a small number of multi-language files that should be
    modified, adding Dutch part (but it is not absolutely necessary):
    And apart from the system, you can translate some resource modules that
    interest you.
    To begin with, you can just copy ALL the French (or English) files to a
    Dutch counterpart, then translate them gradually. As an example, the
    starting page is affected only by things within modules/home.